A Short Summary Of London Airports
Everyone is busy writing essay, prepare a variety of coursework, and preparing for the final. Travel back home and summer vacation must support the hearts and minds of turtles insist Finish final ushered in the biggest pillar of the dawn! It is estimated that many people now can not wait for their wings to fly back. In so staggering sad reminder crazy moment, the commission I will come to you to organize how to get to London’s major airports, paving the way for everyone home the first brick!
Heathrow to gatwick Airport by cab
Heathrow Airport, airport code LHR, located in the west of London City, 15 miles from the city center. It is one of the busiest international airports in the world (the other two are Atlanta Airport and our Beijing Capital Airport). Most of my classmates took this as the gateway to Britain, came here to live in England, and left England. Road leads to Heathrow, everyone according to their own needs to see what kind of the most efficient it.
This is the quickest way to Heathrow Airport with the highest costs. From Paddington station, schedule and fares can be checked online in advance, if it is to pick up friends and relatives, you can consider buying tickets back and forth, it would be more cost-effective. Saver’s one-way 21.5 pounds, round-trip 35 pounds. Tickets are valid for three days. Click here for details .
Subway is the most affordable way, if not hurried. Avoid the rush hour Early take Piccadilly Line, 50 minutes from Heathrow to downtown. However, dragging bags of luggage really is a bit strenuous, if we do not catch up with time, but also the pursuit of affordable convenience, it would be a good choice.
Definition of the New Year
In ancient times, “tri” said, Xia is built in the first month Yin (Meng Chun in January), the Yin of the ugly built in the first month (December winter season), Zhou’s son, built in the first month (November Zhong Dong).
The date of the New Year’s Day is not the same, the first day of the first month of the summer to the New Year’s Day, Shang Dynasty to the beginning of the twelfth lunar month for New Year’s Day, Zhou, and Qin, respectively, in early January and early October New Year’s Day.
This is called correction of the moon and happy new year 2018 images, pictures and wishes, Until the Han Dynasty to follow the Confucian “line of summer” doctrine, only the first day of the first day for the New Year’s Day. Since then, the Sui and Tang dynasties are the first day of the first day of the first summer calendar.
Yuan Qing He began in the Han emperor. The Spring Festival since the Republic of China is the New Year’s Day.
There are several definitions of traditional customs. The line number in the company, public agency, was started by New Year’s Eve to the first month the commencement date.
The Start Of The New Year
(Usually New Year’s Eve or the first day of the first month, to the first month of the first month (or to the first month of the third day, or to the first month of the sixth day, according to the local New Year’s Eve, and the New Year’s Eve, Government holidays), so the so-called “New Year” argument, in modern society, usually refers to the first month to the fifth day.
But the general definition of folk is the beginning of New Year’s Eve, until the fifteenth day of the first lunar festival, commonly known as “new head”.
Another definition is from the festival festival (twelfth lunar month twenty-three or twenty-four), until the New Year’s lunar fifteen.
As well as from the eighth day of the twelfth lunar month Laba Festival, he has been to two days of February rise of the dragon ended.
People have “not the first month even if the New Year” argument.
Part of the region and ethnic groups such as North China , Hakka , Daiwa , Ryukyu family, etc., the new spring to the first month of twenty was officially ended, the last day is a small stuffing or day wear section .
Why The Siberian Husky Puppies are favorite?
Siberian Husky Puppies, or Siberian sled dogs (English name: Siberian husky), commonly Husky, common name for the two Kazakhstan. Siberian sled dogs weighing between male and female 20-27 kg, female dog 16-23 kg, height about male dog height 53-58 cm, female 51-56 cm, is a medium-sized dogs.
Siberian sled dogs are the original old breeds, living in the northeastern part of Siberia and the southern part of Greenland. The origin of the name of the husky is derived from its unique hoarse voice.
Husky personality changeable, and some extremely timid, and some extreme violence, into the mainland and the family of Husky, have no such extreme character, more gentle, is a popular dog in the world.
And golden dog, Labrador tied for the three non-attack type dogs. Is widely cultured around the world, and on a global scale, there are a lot of races of the breed.
Siberian sled dogs are very close to the wolf’s blood breeds, so the shape is very like a wolf, with thicker than most dogs are hair, hair
Husky’s morphological features
Color is roughly divided into black, gray, brown (light brown is also known as the dream color), pure white (very few) four, of course, these colors are usually mixed with white hair at the same time.
Husky eyes are pure brown and pure blue, allowing one eye brown one eye blue. Husky’s front page, commonly known as face, usually cross face, peach face, three fire, the Mediterranean four.
It is worth mentioning that the “blue eyes, three fire”, blue eyes refers to the eyes are blue; three fire refer to the forehead of the three white tracks, looks like three burning flames.
“Blue eyes, three fire” was once mistaken for the criteria of the Husky, in fact, this is not to judge the quality standards of Husky, and vice versa is the popularity of Huskies is the precedent of blood, race class Husky on the very few “blue eyes, Three fire” the existence of more than two brown eyes.
Because Siberian sled dogs and wolves are very similar to the appearance, we see the movie most of the wolves are husky play, so husky and wolves look more like the better.
In addition to thin and thin, black boys haircuts is very dry, so combing and modeling are very inconvenient.
How The Black Peoples shampoo Their Hairs?
Every time you wash your head you need to use hair cream, hair oil for care and stereotypes. In order to save trouble, most African men will choose to cut into bald, while women are short hair. The beauty of the black will stay long hair, and then compiled into braids.
Because if the black hair is long and do not braid into a braid, a long time, you can with our home brush pot of steel balls have a fight Well, the question came, this head of the plump braid, split up it is not very troublesome? Really like rumors, black people will be a month to wash it?
Have a little older students do not crazy, Xiao Bian now can be very clear to tell you, stay pigtail head of the black is to wash your hair! Although not every day to wash, but pay attention to the point of the three or two days will wash once.
You do not have to worry about their demolition of pigtail and bar pigtail pain, because they do not wash their brains when the braids! Yes, wash directly!
This braid is very very tightly tied (do not they hurt the scalp), as long as it is careful, but not rubbing will not loose, and then use a lot of water to wash the shampoo can be. Can not believe it can shampoo it, or else you have a braid test?
Usually No Braids Scattered Them Will Change The New Hairstyle
Look, each little pigtail work fine fine ↓ ↓, it is said that a good braid, according to the degree of braid thickness, need to use 3 to 10 hours.
Because of the long time, guests who do this hairstyle must make an appointment in advance and start doing it by 10:30 am that day.
Of course, the price of the hair is also a lot of money, fine points, good work braids are more than 1,000 yuan!
Said above, black hair is difficult to clean and care, so stay long hair is a relatively painful process. So the vast majority of we saw the black pig with a pigtail, are more like to use a wig , both to meet the beautiful needs, but also save time and time.
Black braid experienced, superior technology, braids when the brackets are directly tied to the volume of their real hair, not our kind of cover on the head of the wig Oh, completely natural over, the effect of just like their own long The same hair.
This kind of fake braids of black people rarely shampoo, because usually no braids scattered them will change the new hairstyle . The money point of the month for a time, no money how to have a change for three months, or else the smell can not make people close, more concentrated perfume will be invalid.
Basic information about surgical wounds
Most surgical treatments are cut through the skin to allow the surgeon to handle deeper tissues or organs. Most surgical Wound Dressing are fully closed at the end of the procedure, and the surgeon is covered with a wound or a sticky adhesive tape on a sutured surgical wound.
Such dressing can be used as a physiological barrier to protect the wound until the skin is restored (within 48 hours), and can absorb the wound exudate, keep the wound dry and clean and prevent bacterial contamination in the external environment.
Some studies have found that dressing to create a moist environment can accelerate wound healing, even if some people believe that the damp environment harmful, such as excessive exudate can cause the wound and the surrounding healthy skin softening and deterioration.
We reviewed the medical literature from July 2013 to find out four early surgical wounds (within 48 hours after surgery to remove the dressings) with delayed removal of the dressing (more than 48 hours after surgery to remove the dressings permanently, but allow the period Replacement dressing) compared to randomized controlled trials.
The degree of deviation of these studies is mostly high or unclear, for example, the failure to perform the test leads to incorrect results. A total of 280 participants who received scheduled surgery were included in this literature review.
140 people removed the dressing within 48 hours after surgery, and 140 wound dressings for more than 48 hours after surgery. Dispose of in an early removal dressing (within 48 hours) or use dressings for more than 48 hours in a random manner similar to throwing copper.
There was no significant difference between the two groups in the presence of superficial surgical site infection (wound infection), superficial wound dehiscence (wound partial dissection leading to skin surface re-cleavage) or experienced serious adverse events.
No complications were reported in the study of deep wound infection or wound complete cleft (wound completely re-split, interrupt wound healing). However, the size of the study is not sufficient to distinguish between minor differences in the incidence of complications.
There is no research report on the quality of life. The early removal of the participants in the dressing group significantly shortened the number of hospital days and reduced the cost of treatment compared to the delayed removal of the dressing group, but this result was based on a randomized controlled trial with a small size and very low quality of evidence.
The Since the present evidence was obtained in three small-scale, randomized controlled trials with very low quality of evidence, we recommend that a randomized controlled trial should be performed to further explore the necessity of post-operative wound dressings for more than 48 hours.
AREDS2 or early AMD patients a role here?
AREDS study showed that the recipe for non-AMD or very early AMD (such as a small amount of tiny glass
Glass warts) patients without effect. These patients are more necessary to optimize the structure of the eye healthy diet.
Whether I should be taken with caution AREDS2 formula supplements?
Yes. When intake of large doses of vitamins and minerals, you must proceed with caution. You should do
Consult a doctor to see if supplements can interfere with other medications.
Such as cranberries or saffron and other nutritional supplements effective?
There is no conclusive evidence that cranberries or saffron can reduce the risk of macular degeneration or slow it down.
How do you know they are suffering from macular degeneration?
You will not notice the early symptoms of macular degeneration (drusen appear), so check the eye and macular vital
important. Early onset macular degeneration usually are not easy to detect symptoms.
With the development of eye disease, you may have the following symptoms:
■ difficult to feel when reading or another work requires fine vision;
■ Video deformation distortion originally looked straight or curved corrugated;
■ recognizing faces difficult;
■ central field of vision to be dark or blank.
Need brighter lighting, sensitive to glare, decreased night vision, color vision loss, etc., may mean with eye problems.
Vision changes in any form cannot be ignored, we cannot simply think that this is the eye, “presbyopia.” Whether it is Dry or wet macular degeneration, the earlier the diagnosis, the sooner you can take steps to slow down the development of eye diseases.
Especially which is wet macular degeneration, early start of treatment, the greater the possibility of preservation of vision.
Must let the eye care specialist and macular eye exams, and follow-up regularly review their recommendations.
If sudden changes in vision or the onset of symptoms, you should immediately see a specialist ophthalmology, cannot be delayed (Within one week).
Early detection and early intervention is the key to the preservation of vision.
Visual acuity visual distortion (distortion) decreased contrast sensitivity dark spots (central blind spot)
Macular degeneration diagnosis method
Eye care specialist may use eye drops to enlarge your pupils to be able to fully observe and inspect
Inside the eye retina. Dilated pupils after a few hours, your vision may be blurred. Pupil returned to close
Before shrinking, you cannot drive.
This is a photographic technique optometrists and ophthalmologists typically use dedicated check retina. Retinal image
To see details of the retina, the eye can be used as the basis for future comparative examination.
If the ophthalmologist suspected presence of wet macular degeneration, they generally use fluorescein angiography for further adjustment
check. Doctors fluorescent dye injected into the blood vessels from the arm. Dye quickly reach the eye, and with the blood in the retina
Film circulation. Doctors can be observed any abnormal situation, find the damaged blood vessels. At the same
When a camera with a special filter will take a series of photos. The whole process takes a few minutes.
Optical coherence tomography
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) scan has become routine diagnosis and management of wet macular degeneration
Standard procedures. OCT is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses light to generate extremely high precision retina
Before heading to eye care specialists at the examination, you should find out whether there are any special requirements. E.g.,
After checking whether you can drive home yourself.
Amsler Grid tests for eye
Amsler Grid is an essential tool for self-monitoring, you can use it to discover whether changes in visual acuity and macular
Degeneration. You may notice vision changes include image distortion (straight lines become wavy), shadow
Or blank. Amsler Grid cannot be used as medicine for diagnostic purposes, cannot substitute for a regular eye check
check. Amsler Grid in use process, if the sudden change in vision, you should immediately tell
ophthalmologist. Amsler Grid test were your two eyes, each eye to identify possible the problem. This is a very important step in this test.
Amsler Grid function is to detect the symptoms of macular degeneration. It does not replace a regular basis by the eye care specialist your eyes checked.
- Early detection is the key to the preservation of macular degeneration vision.
- If you have concerns about your vision changes,
- Should immediately ophthalmologist advice, do not delay.
- Foundation with magnetic backside Amsler Grid.
- You can secure it on the refrigerator door for visual inspection every day.
- Look normal vision eye care specialist immediately
- If you see wavy lines or squares twist
- Bending stress or blurry or defect,
- This may be a symptom of macular degeneration.
Sudden vision changes how to do?
- Do not delay, immediately see eye
- Care experts.
Do you usually wear removal of reading?
Wearing glasses or contact lenses;The square table lift to the eye height,
Distance to maintain normal eye when reading from; cover one eye. With uncovered Eye gaze central square black spots (Make sure the other eye completely Covered;
Replace the eye, repeat the above steps.
A variety of diseases and disorders of the elderly can cause mental retardation. Conditions and drug reactions can cause changes in the state of the deity known as “pseudo-dementia.” Medical tests can find out what reasons for the existence of reverse, for example:
Drug reaction. Most common. Doctors should be tested
All medications, prescription drugs, over-the-counter medications and Herbal medicine to reduce the side effects of the drug performance.
Endocrine abnormalities. Thyroid abnormalities, parathyroid Glandular abnormalities, and adrenal dysfunction to simulate senile dementia, metabolic disorders. Kidney and liver failure, liver and pancreatic disease caused by electrolyte imbalance (Blood Test), low blood sugar, high blood calcium, leading to confusion Loss of appetite, sleep and mood change emotional distress. Depression or life changes, such as
Retirement, divorce or loss of dear people can be affected the physical and mental health of individuals. Should inform the doctor
The first life stressful event. Visual and auditory. Visual acuity and hearing impairment can lead the results of inappropriate reactions are misinterpreted.
Should be hearing and visual examination?
Confusion is a symptom of urinary tract infection which performed.
Should inform the doctor?
Nutritional deficiencies. Vitamin B deficiency (folic acid,
Niacin, riboflavin and thiamine) to cause recognition known obstacles.
Degenerative (irreversible) dementia
If the patient is not clear to have irreversible or degenerative dementia
Is reversible dementia, the patient’s family and medical staff have to find out Etiology.
This will ensure that patients will receive appropriate treatment and nursing, family can also plan and find appropriate support and care. The following are the most common degenerative dementias:
Alzheimer’s is the most Common dementia, especially over the age of 65, though However, the disease can also occur in young people. Alzheimer Syndrome affects about 50% of patients in the 85-year-old.
The study the exact reason why people cannot find the disease at present is not there is cure. Symptoms vary from person to person, but memory, thinking and operational capacity will gradually decrease with the loss of function.
Ischemic vascular dementia (Ischemic Vascular Dementia)
Dementia / IVD). IVD is the second most common
Dementia is characterized by loss of functioning function or cognitive function
The force declines in the “administrative functions” simply, such as planning and
Mission accomplished. When the symptoms suddenly appear, the patient usually
Experienced a stroke. For others, for others, slow progression of function and / or thought
Dementia with Lewy Bodies / DLB).
Dementia with Lewy bodies is a gradual Progressive degenerative disease shares with Alzheimer’s disease and symptoms of Parkinson’s disease. DLB cognitive function wave.
Emotional damage and have motor abnormalities and Parkinson’s disease
Front temporal dementia
Dementia / FTD). Scanning can be found bilaterally symmetrical
Degenerative abnormalities in the frontal and temporal lobes.
The frontal lobe of the brain 4
Anterior temporal control of reasoning, personality, movement, speech,
Social etiquette and some aspects of memory. Symptoms Sometimes
Can be misdiagnosed as mental illness. The disease to 45 to 65 years of age
As multiple age groups. Symptoms showed two opposite
Way: Some patients showed transitional activity, cramped
Disturbed, do not follow the ethical code of social behavior
Other manifestations of apathetic, inert and emotional slow.
Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (Creutzfeldt-Jakob
Disease / CJD). CJD is a fast way to go
Of the deadly brain disease. Infectious sponge
Encephalopathy and the disease is the cause of prion protein. This
The disease is difficult to diagnose because it has many different diagnoses
Including sleep disorders, personality changes, ataxia,
Aphasia, visual loss, physical, muscle atrophy, Myoclonus, progressive dementia and other symptoms? Parkinson’s dementia. Parkinson’s syndrome clinical manifestations of shock
Tremor, stiffness, slow, unsteady gait and other symptoms. The clinical manifestations of the nervous system may be partial or even complete
Like Parkinson’s disease. When Parkinson’s syndrome does not have any nerves
System anomalies and cannot identify the cause of hair,
This disease was described as a Parkinson disease in 1817
Years by the British physician.
Progressive supranuclear palsy)
Supranuclear Palsy / PSP). The disease mainly
There are three clinical features are postural instability and movement disorders
Vertical supranuclear palsy, or eye movement impairment
And dementia. Although these three characteristics are considered to be
The PSP is also characterized by patients with this disease also experience
To degenerative disorders of the brain, including dyskinesia
For changing, speaking and swallowing difficulties and other symptoms. Because the disease is relatively rare, PSP is often misdiagnosed as Parkinsen disease. However, its therapeutic response and clinical symptoms Is different, to make accurate diagnosis is very important.
Normal pressure hydrocephalus (Normal Pressure
Hydrocephalus / NPH). The clinical manifestations of this disease
Now gait instability, urinary incontinence and dementia. Recognize
As is a rare cause of Alzheimer’s disease
Mainly in the 60-year-old occurred. NPH accurate hair
It is difficult to determine the disease rate does not have the formal agreement of the disease. Some physicians rely on imaging to make a diagnosis
Evidence, another group of medical personnel rely on clinical indications. Other physicians use reliable clinical signs and symptoms
The combination. Treatment is ventricular shunt, to reduce
Less by the pressure brought by cerebrospinal fluid.
Huntington’s disease (Huntington’s
Disease / HD). The disease is a genetic fatal
Of the disease, the performance characteristics of involuntary movements (dance
Disease) and cognitive decline (Alzheimer’s disease).
Can cause some of the brain structure, especially the basal ganglia, Which may lead to patients unable to control their own action
And emotions, as well as causing mental and cognitive functioning aspects of the retreat.
Terminal brand building problems and pressures
Next, I would like to talk about why Decathlon can become a good brand, what kind of work done. First of all, how to understand a good terminal brand, I think so, the most basic level in the pyramid is certainly the staff, there is a good management team and excellent staff, on top of a healthy sales channels, so that his products Can be sold in different areas, then the above is a unique brand of purpose, I have just introduced the beginning. The end-end or to the end customer’s identity, my customers agree with me, then my brand can play out.
That we are talking about this topic today is about the brand, why do you say, including Mr. Pei Ye Hao, all of you here, want to promote a brand in China, I think we have a common reason, I list here, The point is to establish a terminal brand profit margin will be higher than the manufacturing industry; the second is to have a global development plan, not necessarily in China, but also in global development, the development of what is the basis, I have A brand, so to establish; the third may be the vertical long-term development, I only do manufacturing, then, for example, I have all the costs are growing, or my resources are depleted, then I manufacturing Where the future.
Therefore, based on these three points, it may be necessary to establish the brand. At the same time there may be some pressure, for example, the strategic shift of manufacturing enterprises, such as India, South Asia, they have become a dark horse, as our competitors, on this basis, we are not to do some strategic shift, Is the competitive pressure with the industry, we are now quite competitive among the manufacturing industry, intense competition, then I is not to withdraw, to build its own brand, which is the common purpose and reason.
If we build a brand, then what are the hands of ace it?
I think there are four types, one is the continuous expansion of the domestic consumer market, the second is the level of consumption continues to increase, the next is the continuous professional management team, coupled with the Government, today there are mayors, Is the Government’s support, so these points is that we have the trump card.
Since it is to build the terminal brand which functions, from our Decathlon analysis, the first is to have high-level decision-making, this is a must; the second is the core of the R & D department; the third is to The fourth is the logistics and transportation, followed by marketing, and then channel expansion, I would like to marketing and channel development must be separated, the product is the product of the purchase of the product, Followed by quality assurance and customer service, these are indispensable departments. Since the establishment of the brand, we also have ace, the purpose there, then we have what pressure?
Let’s take a look, is not it? The first is to say what we sell, market positioning of our products and its sales model, we are not able to be accurate, can be set in a scientific and accurate, this is a difficult point; the second point is that our channel Rapid laying, that is where we sell, which may have to invest a lot of money, contacts, etc., this is a difficult point; the third point is how to sell, then our marketing department is not to have the strength to go Do marketing, then it’s a position is not appropriate? How we sell, is just like Li Ning, he may be the beginning of imitation, and then have their own ideas, how it sells between this, how can be very accurate, this is a difficulty; the next one is that the product supply The chain of complete and orderly, that is, when to sell.
For example, Decathlon, I do since the terminal brand, then I purchase where to buy, where to sell, this is to lay well in advance, I not only lay the channel but also laying the product supply chain. There is a professional marketing team, as well as the spread of brand culture, which is advertising, is this one who is to sell.
Next is our pressure, on the one hand is very intense competition with the industry, as we now have a lot of sports brands, there are already many domestic, foreign brands have squeezed the market, how can we overcome these brands, among the Such as the market, the competition is a lot of pressure; there is a lot of pre-investment, including advertising, channel laying, etc .; the third point is how to grasp customer loyalty, how to attract customers over; The fourth point is that some sales channels are not so perfect, may give each competitive brand to add some pressure; the fifth point is that, in fact, our domestic R & D design and foreign or a certain gap, then how do I put My products go abroad, this is a pressure.
So there is so much pressure, we really ready to do the end brand it? I am here to emphasize the brand is the product of the terminal brand, I would like to lead you for a change of thinking, in addition to the terminal product brand, we are not there other way to build other brands? We now look at our end brand to establish a purpose, a good direction is high profit margins, global development planning, long-term development planning.
Pressure is the strategic shift of production enterprises and the competitive pressure in the same industry. We look at what the solution, high profits, then, is not able to improve the technological content of products to improve its high profits? In the market share of this product is unique, that other manufacturers and I do not have a competitive, and I certainly can improve my high profit margins.
Then the next step is to say that the global development plan, we can not only establish a global brand, we can build a global production base. Long-term development plan, is to establish a sustainable development of the product supply chain, but also can do long-term development planning. Production enterprises strategic shift, we can transfer different functional departments, for example, the production sector in other places, but the R & D department is still here, you can do a good strategic shift. There is competition in the industry pressure, I highlight that is to create a production-oriented corporate brand, that is how this kind of a brand?
Buyer’s requirements for suppliers
At this point, let us talk about as a buyer, his suppliers of measurement standards, as well as suppliers how to reflect this value to meet the requirements of suppliers must be quality, and the second is social responsibility, and the third is Technical level, efficiency management system and services, which are buyers of a common requirements and metrics, there is an innovation. Suppliers how to do it?
Quality, you can do a complete quality system, and now manufacturers are doing ISO9000 or even higher quality certification. Social responsibility We have to meet the human rights protection standards of international human rights organizations, that is, we usually refer to the human rights audit, factory and buyers through cooperation, you can build such a sound level, the technical level is to have the ability to research and development of technical team And advanced equipment, which is a manifestation of the value of suppliers.
Next is the efficiency of management, we can and factories to establish a number of continuous improvement of production management methods. Service, the supplier can do a quick reflection and flexible production. Innovation is the hope that the supplier has an independent innovation and design capabilities, I think with the customer to do ODM or OEM depends on our own, if we are strong enough innovation, then we do different customers with ODM is also not a bad idea.
Next, we Oxylane how to choose suppliers, that is, each buyer needs price, delivery and quality, one is the production capacity is a management level. Capacity is the size of our suppliers or long-term planning, your investment is only in this small piece of me to keep or continue to expand, or will increase in some other areas, this for us, long-term cooperation is a very important conditions of.
The second point is the management level, I think each supplier’s own management system will be different, the so-called management level is our supplier can do a sustainable development of their own management, not to say that a short-term, I think A high level of management must be long-term cooperation with customers, and then their continuous development of management. The last requirement is our long-term planning.
Supreme quality, not on price
Stubborn German will not easily bow in any way, for the price, it looks “stingy.”Price remains high, is a major feature of German products. In 1899, the Carl Miele and Reinhard Zinkann meet of the year, also the German Miele (Miele) birth year. Two like-minded friends with the same philosophy, “the pursuit of extreme Erin Brockovich”, founded the family business Germany and the United States Connaught (Miele). “The pursuit of extreme Erin Brockovich” This character Proverbs in Germany Miele (Miele) business philosophy, is the heritage of 112 years.
In 1929, Miele launched Europe’s first dishwasher was a dishwasher price equal to a three-year family income. Release not long after they encountered the Great Depression, dishwasher poor sales, but still insisted on Miele dishwasher development, it never stopped.
After the war in 1960, Miele launched Europe’s first electric dishwasher, sales are still far from ideal, these dishwashers manufactured only less than a million units, but still insisted Miele dishwasher as potential products, continue to develop and manufacture until the 1960s began to hit. Today, Miele dishwasher, washing machine, etc. to sell at 10 times the price of other similar products and in short supply.
Miele company was founded from the outset firmly believe that “quality is convincing and sustained success of this.” In today’s global economic integration, the German Miele insist on quality first, still adhere to manufacturing in Germany, formed Guesersloh (Gutersloh) City as the center, radiation throughout Germany 8 factories. At the same time, the German R & D Miele Miele pay huge investment, each plant is equipped with separate R & D center to ensure that each product regardless of design or quality can reach the industry’s only 20 years of standard use.
Miele as a microcosm of German manufacturing, the real mapping out a rigorous and relentless pursuit of excellence with high quality German manufacturing industry. Only ensure the quality, price declines are entitled to say “NO”.
Strong currency, forcing business transformation
Today, Germany has a high quality and high-priced products, Mercedes-Benz to spend a million; the world’s share of the first STIHL chainsaw to sell 16,000 yuan; Miele dishwasher sell 36,000 yuan, etc., which are all in Germany proof strength. But who would have thought, in 1940, Germany and the products actually “shoddy” equate that after World War II Britain also called on German products is absolutely necessary “Made in Germany” for their products and to phase segments. All this shame today have completely changed, and this change is due to the German monetary policy.
Until the advent of the euro in 1999, Mark has been Europe’s most powerful currency, resulting in export must maintain a high price, we can guarantee to keep manufacturing in this country, not relocation, but also the product itself with quality assurance for the German brand Create laid a solid foundation.
It is also due to the high-end market, few German companies to find OEM manufacturing, almost all manufactured by itself solve. Take Miele (Miele) washing machine, for example, except for a few parts, most of the spring, steel tanks, and other accessories by Miele to develop their own, even the washing machine control circuit board is also developed by the United States promise, in order to ensure the highest quality.
Manufacturer is king
The current Chinese housing prices soared year after year, many manufacturers have to join the real estate business, real estate profits to make low-profit industrial manufacturing companies uninterested, this way, the gradual loss of China’s manufacturing advantage, this is the real estate profits in the manufacturing sector out effect. In Germany, however, the situation is very different. In Germany, real estate is not a lucrative industry, manufacturing is king. Although all German income is high, but the German capital Berlin, prices are far less than China’s north. On. Wide. Deep. Data show that in the past ten years, the German house prices rose an average of 1% per year, while the price level rose by an average of 2% per year, compared to housing prices in Germany actually at an annual rate of 1% shrink. Since 1977, average house prices in Germany rose 60 percent, while personal income increased more than threefold. Germany to implement private ownership of land, land use at all levels of government have clear limits, clear division of commercial and residential areas, while real estate prices are also depending on the market, not the real estate business have the final say. Meanwhile, Germany’s transactions and the sale of each house rental transactions will be recorded so that the statistics of the average price of rental housing in the region, more than the price will be heavy penalties.
So to curb opportunistic real estate, business profits refused to make no profit in real estate in Germany, German companies also know that manufacturing is king, from peace of mind in development and manufacturing to eliminate the idea flourishes.
Sports goods industry brand building
First of all, how to understand a good terminal brand, I think so, the most basic level in the pyramid is certainly the staff, there is a good management team and excellent staff, on top of a healthy sales channels, so that his products Can be sold in different areas, then the above is a unique brand of purpose, the end-end or to the end customer’s identity, my customers agree with me, then my brand can play out.
As an international buyer, my point of view may be different from Mr. Li and Mr. Pei. Then I introduce our brand, from our Decathlon Group began to address, first of all our group name is called Oxylane.
Our group has a purpose is to create passion and desire for the broad masses of the movement to provide the happiness of our customer base is the public, our aim is to provide movement of happiness, which is said with Mr. Pei is also very consistent, our group is 76 years in Lille, France was founded, was a sports equipment and casual clothing discount stores, to 86 years, we and other brands in the process of cooperation is not very convenient, we have our own manufacturing company and Its own brand, and began production, 88 years to establish an Asian office, 92 years to enter China, 96 years to establish their own brand, 03 Asian headquarters moved from Hong Kong to Shanghai in 2008, we officially changed its name to Oxylane, before the Decathlon Is as the name of our store and continue to follow. Now we have achieved is the first in Europe, the world’s second-largest sports brand. This is one of our organizational chart, but it will look more special, and some other sports brands will be compared to some differences.
Our core is a R & D department, around it is a technology brand, and then in the third lap around the technology brand is our passion brand, which is a terminal brand, and then outside is a retail, That is, our retail carrier, in this organizational structure, we see our core part of our R & D, our most extensive part of our retail or a carrier.
Our human resources are now 42,000 employees worldwide, from 60 nationalities, located in 300 positions, each year in the international scope to recruit three thousand people in France is within the scope of recruitment 150000 People, and we give each employee to provide good training, a year is to have 500,000 hours.
Next up is our R & D, our R & D in Europe is the second largest R & D department, it has 63 R & D personnel, eight internal laboratories, and then 40 laboratory partners, each year will be launched in the headquarters of France 150 new project. Our R & D center is located in a place closest to the customer, the one closest to the customer.
We have Domyos R & D center in Lille, France. This is our R & D brand, and Inesis, Qquechua is ours. Outdoors, Tribord is in the French seaside, the most southern France, but also for the fastest application and use of products, so this R & D center established in a French seaside. Then production, we have 16 countries in the world production base in Asia accounted for 13.6, this is the number in 2009, may now have some changes.
In this case,
Logistics, we have four thousand employees, each year 45,000 containers will be transported, followed by our retail model, that is, our carrier. Decathlon shop is one of our largest carrier, it is in the four thousand flat, six thousand flat, eight thousand flat a scale in China now has 43 home. The second is the Koodza shop, is one of our discount stores, the third is our online sales and so on and so on, we will have many other retail model, but in China is now mainly Decathlon.
This is a retail store next to a photo, our retail stores are more than 4000 square feet of specifications. Sales, in 2009 is 6.3 billion euros, 10 years is to achieve 70 billion euros, growth can be said to be pretty fast, 30% growth. We have our own foundation, which is 95 Decathlon volunteers, the beneficiary population is 20,000. Decathlon we generally introduced to here, I would like to introduce here, we may have on the Decathlon has a very three-dimensional understanding。
Brands can not imitate, it is long out of the heart
I want to share a case, I believe that the presence of too many people is to have Apple’s IPH0NE, is that listening to music, there may be several compatriots from Taiwan also have some knowledge, that is, Apple Ipad, after listing Ipad, no Creative people remember, that Apple pay more attention to the promotion and marketing, Creative perhaps major error committed in Singapore is that they think they sell products, technology, and Apple has recognized that he was selling an experience, they sell the emotional sense of belonging, I think I have IPOD, because we are a brand, brand sounds like magic.
I would like to ask the representative of the presence there of Li Ning? There does not matter, because in fact I think this case has taught us a lot that we can learn a lot from here, that we from this figure, we can feel what the original idea was it? Imitation, thought I was going tick, you can raise the price several times, and learning is a method of overall performance, the overall design language, but in fact, the real success of the brand not produce so simple.
OEM manufacturers know that imitation can be very successful, we do not have to look down to imitate, but the brand is not so simple, then the company has recognized this, I felt it to change himself, his knowledge from the original mark become another identification mark, the original slogan from a slogan into another, the overall volume of orders from the net profit for the third quarter are declining, with double-digit decline, more terrible.
The important question is why? Many analysts express their own views, the real reason is complex, I believe, anyway, some say the administration of Li Ning brand company may underestimate the difficulty of the transition, and it’s time, perhaps as soon as they put the pricing strategy changed, It is to hike.
There is the original brand’s strength is not good enough, perhaps, as I just said to mimic the main, I have taken a lot of brand masters opinions, they also continue to promote the brand is determined to have their own, from their own heart grow, do not avoid those who own real source, do not imitate others.
Consumer-oriented product innovation is the best innovation
New product development is a systematic project, its core is already consumer-oriented, starting from the consumer, the consumer insight into the real heart of the demand, every business needs to be done before the innovative products on the basis of the work, the only way to new technology from research exhibit achievements to come out into the consumer market and public life, but also for enterprises to inject new vitality, create new profit growth point.
Product innovation is the enterprise survival and development of core strategies
Global Business numerous innovative products to market each year, but 80% failed.
Product innovation has been not a single problem encountered by enterprises, but a global problem.
Product Innovation – Enterprises Succeed
Procter & Gamble from 1837 to today started a piece of soap, with more than 300 brands, the output value of over one billion US dollars there are 27 brands, products can be maintained behind the high market share, it is the continuous development of new products. P & G every year in new product research and development about $ 1.3 billion investment, the world has more than 7000 scientists into research and development of new products;
Sony Corporation of Japan in the beginning of the century, the new product had to reserve in 2030, its annual investment in new product research funding accounted for 10% of sales value –30% of its R & D personnel more than 10,000 people;
The grass is always greener consumers forced down companies must continue to innovate in order to survive and develop. But the reality is that 80 percent of innovative products failed a year.
Many companies complain, even if the product made the most detailed market research, but finally failed. Faced with the development of new products, all businesses were struck with the same kind of emotion: the introduction of new products are not “die”, the introduction of new products, “court death.”
Why consumers do not buy the product innovation
September 1984, Coca-Cola management whim, declare a change in its popular 99-year Coca-Cola formula, the introduction of New Coke. After more than six months, New Coke more than 100,000 people after a survey by the market was hit by a strong consumer boycott and protest, “This new stuff is worse than the taste of Pepsi.” “You should be ashamed of the Coca-Cola label attached to the top. ” Three months later, Coca-Cola had to restore its traditional production. The matter was “New York Times” called one of America’s most important business a hundred years of mistakes.
New Coke will not be accepted by the public of the reason is very simple. Consumer demand can be divided into material needs and psychological needs. Test prior to listing is basically only got to meet the material aspects of information, two psychological level information can not be obtained. Coca-Cola for US consumers is a traditional cultural symbol of New Coke so that consumers feel betrayed.
Therefore, do not rely too much on your survey data, and insight into the real idea behind consumer. Consumers will only to meet their physical and psychological needs of innovative products pay.
Product innovation model – Funnel Development Model
New products, research and development of new technologies is not just business things, the world’s major institutions of higher learning, scientific research institutes are a hotbed of new technologies.
The basic model of innovation system is the Cooperative Innovation. Cooperative refers to enterprises, universities and research institutions to use their own advantages, through cooperation to make technological innovation to achieve, the butt coupled downstream to make innovative achievements into productive forces, to improve efficiency and achieve scientific and technological innovation and economic Coordinated development. United States, Japan, Britain and other countries in accordance with their actual form their own research to develop characteristic pattern. 1993 UNESCO believes universities and industry cooperation can make outstanding contributions to the process of industrialization in developing countries, to study, and research as a priority to promote.
As a master of the theory of knowledge, major colleges and universities in the study should be fully integrated practice, not just dedicated to books, drill out the theoretical knowledge. Research and development of the main force, scientific research institutes in terms of product development and can not “ears do not hear out of the window, bent only made useless” on the results behind closed doors will only appear more and more products out of the market theory.
This shows the need in product development and the transformation process, the research closely. On the one hand the school a better application of scientific research into the development process, on the other hand also, and enterprise-depth cooperation. However, the current scientific and technological achievements into productive forces or of the ability of new products is still lacking.
For new product development model has come a long period of exploration. In order to improve the success rate of new products, new product development model even today still innovation. Today in the field of global new product development model is entering the next frontier of innovation in order to improve the success rate of new product development – Funnel new product development model.
Brand founding: China to Germany to learn what?
World War II, Hitler’s Third Reich complete destruction, but he promised to let cars into people’s homes, but realized in Germany.
2010 Inter brand Best Global 100 came out, looking through their list is a loss to find a Chinese brand, as people feel distraught sigh. There is no doubt that the United States topped the list, and is ranked second in the biggest losers in World War II – Germany. The industrial revolution in Germany for nearly a full 80 years later than in England. The “Made in Germany”, but was then “world factory” nose. Since the end of World War II, but also more than 60 years, the German nation in later years, with its strict attitude to create numerous well-known brands. Germany such a short time fast rise speed seemed unbearably frightening.
From the “national car” to ” Volkswagen “
When it comes to the German brand, people’s first reaction will be the Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Volkswagen brand cars such as the birthplace of the automobile, Germany repairer industry really come out on top. But everyone knows, in 1929, per capita car ownership has lagged far behind Germany and Britain and France, every 237 people have a car, and the UK 45 people, there were a contrast, really deserve the title of car power. The reason is that the German production car-based luxury style to its high price and the price of fuel tax greatly limits the number of sales.
Hitler came to power in the first 11 days, he announced the concept of “national car”: a top speed of 100 kilometers, less than 7 liters hundred kilometers, can carry two adults and three children, the price of not more than 1000 marks, so everyone has their own cars. The same day, “Volkswagen” (Volkswagen) was the first mention of the word. Under Hitler strongly encourage vehicle production strategy, most car companies in the pursuit of the Nazi economy independent strategy, adjust their own production, won the survival and development of the war period.
World War II, Hitler’s Third Reich complete destruction, but he promised to let cars into people’s homes, but realized in Germany. After World War II, the Germans did not correct from a political point of view, and remove those with Nazi Volkswagen factory mark, but remains the development of this “Hitler product” and to be supported.
They will focus on the “Beetle” car that is this small car, after the United States broke the Ford “T Model” sales record, creating a new era. Germany has since officially become Europe’s largest car producer and exporter. It is by virtue of the first German “Volkswagen” brand insistence, which makes the “national car” concept was finally realized, it has now become a true sense of Volkswagen cars.